花样的年华

花样的年华

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在过去的五年中,我们很荣幸拥有在中国的工作机会。今年五月,我们又回到了中国并来到了北京,深圳,
香港和澳门。令人消除疑虑的并且甚至激励人心的是和欧洲相同本地​​和外国的文化创意产业在中国的发展并不是一件容易的事情。

创造和想象力的附加值仍然还是在最实现便宜的生产方式前面挣扎着。因此,中国的设计师是被迫全面承担自己的想法可以在沿途被盗的风险,参与从产品开发到最后生产阶段的整个流程。有关采购招标的过程也仍然不透明,迫使创意公司为赢得竞标尝试做出巨大的和不经济的代价。

在中国数字服务的先进地位是远远超过欧洲的,但当地的数字出版商没有能力有效地实现数字内容产业的盈利。规范的文化创意产业的商业模式和服务契约制度在中国几乎不存在。整个产业十分缺乏法律框架和示范合同。这些因素对中国文化创意产业的发展造成了重大障碍。此外,知识产权作为一个创意产业领域的主要商业交易工具,多年中并未被重视。目前,中国的文化创意产业也正在为加强知识产权执法的游说。

加强文化创意产业的发展获得了中国最高政治层面上的最高政策优先支持。创意专业人士正在被市场高度重视着,但仍有许多工作有待完成以便给与创作者,艺术家和创意公司应得的地位。这其实与在欧洲的情况并无不同,但必须承认的是欧洲的文化创意产业受益于一个更加有利的产业发展的市场体制,包括金融支持,知识产权保护和执法和特殊的税收制度。

然而,这有着精力和心态上的差异。中国如同任何一个国家在对创造力的投资风险中都会犯错误,并可能后悔其文化战略太过多市场经济的集中发展,和过分的依托大企业,而不是更多的重视中小企业的发展。但是,支持文化创意产业关键要素已在:中国政府政治意愿明确是要以支持文化资源和创造能量的积累发展为重点来打造国家的文艺复兴和经济可持续发展性。

中国大型企业正在建设令人印象深刻的文化基础设施。大连万达集团通过以二十六亿美元出价对美国AMC娱乐集团的并购将要成为世界上最大的电影院院线组织。文化创意产业发展的重心点也同时放在建立具有国际吸引力的具有中国古老的文化传统的品牌。中国发明了陶瓷,也曾是第一个进行丝绸生产和贸易的国家。这些文化资本正在被重新发现,并正在采取措施改造古老传统。这展示着中国对卓越品质的期望。例如,爱马仕和中国设计师蒋琼耳合作推出的品牌“上下”,就是一个尝试。深圳的红钻集团是瞄准了类似的目标,正协助景德镇振兴九百年的陶瓷艺术传统。

中国也在吸引艺术表演的制作者,因为缺乏表演艺术公司来填补其新建的剧院和文化场所。中国市场更开放于将文化和技术结合的视听产业,同时以确保强大的本地产业发展。这无数的努力也是针对了要超越单纯的娱乐或西方品牌消费的中国公民的精神文化和想象力的提升。

在我们的行程中,我们遇到了许多欧洲企业组织(包括小型企业)。在某些情况下,已经由国家政府的支持来开拓中国市场,如芬兰或荷兰的企业。这些企业同样面临着和中国企业面临着同样的问题,但他们有一个显着的差异是需要适应东方文明的商业惯例和传统。在中国的商业交易涉及不同的规则,其更加重视的耐心和信任。其实质是要找到一个可靠的商业伙伴和模式,接下来的将逐渐跟进。在欧元的贬值经济形势下
– 在四年下降二十个百分点,这更应该有帮助。

我们正在进入一个新的阶段,在中国强大的制造业正在威胁邻国的低工资中,不得不从文化的创造和创新力中获得至关重要的竞争优势。欧洲奢侈品牌或欧洲作为旅游目的地的吸引力的成功,表明中国对卓越质量的饥渴增倍。

在欧洲的经济不稳定和财政紧缩的大气候下,也导致了中国对吸引欧洲投资愿望的转变。中国已认为欧洲不再拥有大量的投资能力。中国对现今的欧洲的看法已被2012年发生在希腊的社会经济的萧条痛苦夸大了。一个破产的经济如何在中国投资呢?然而,欧洲的公司应该是要知道的主要是由地方政府当局的支持的
“集群”和“创意园区”的发展。这是一个机会,对涉足亚洲提供了有利条件。

中国的强大的产业博览会是另一种重要的了解市场和进入市场的路线。中国商务部主办的中国国际服务贸易洽谈会,简称为
“CIFTIS”,已设定每年在五月底举行,并着重专注于文化贸易。中国商务部和文化部也长期以来大力支持深圳文博会,其已吸引了来自亚洲各地的450万名游客和2000家参展商。深圳市已拥有独特的创意集群园区。深圳市也是第一个被纳入教科文组织“设计城市”网络的中国城市。每年五月的深圳文博会在过去的九年中一直致力于文化创意产业在中国范围内的推广以及建立一个与国际接轨的平台。同样,中国的首都北京,拥有包括资讯科技和旅游业在内占全市生产总值的百分之十一的文化创意产业。北京也正在促进自己的设计周,被称为
“北京国际设计周 - BJDW” (今年九月底将举行第2届)。澳门国际贸易投资展览会, 简称为 “MIF”(将在今年十月举行),也将侧重于文化创意产业。澳门像香港这样一个值得看的特别制度的好处,并致力建设一个以吸引动画和音像制作公司的新开发区,旨在从当地赌场经济转型于多元化的经济发展。

所有这些国际博览会吸引了成千上万渴望了解中国和国外的创意职业和文化传统。这是对欧洲地区意味着一个良好的机会,同时在推销作为旅游目的地的吸引力之外,也展示了自己宝贵的文化创意资产。

中国正在为外交和贸易的双重原因推动其文化的出口。(与此同时,欧盟是在许多情况下仍然使用鸡尾酒​​外交文化!)

中国贸易出口的驱动应鼓励欧洲文化和贸易展览会(如戛纳,法兰克福,米兰,巴黎,伦敦),应制定更强力的促销活动来吸引中国的文化创意企业,以确保其世界领先地位。注意到世界艺术品展览会,巴塞尔,巴黎,伦敦和威尼斯的地位现在正被香港的上位威胁着。因为中国现在已成为世界第二大艺术品市场。

中国也正在着重发展着与非洲和葡语国家(经澳门)通过文化项目的紧密联系。这些都是欧洲伙伴关系其他的机会。

中国仍然是羡慕欧洲的文化遗产,以其卓越的创造力,其文化多样化的驱动性,其文化机构(博物馆,剧院),其的设计者,建筑师,艺术家和产业的质量,等等。中国的首要任务是要在政策和商业贸易上加强与欧洲的合作伙伴关系。

并不是只有欧洲意识到其文化和商业资产。西方和东方的文化传统和技术诀窍的相遇将有利于世界的创造发展,会在解放创造力量的同时增加相互的了解。是否欧洲看到了自己的花样的年华了呢?

 

菲利普·克恩

KEA欧洲事务所 首席执行官和创始人

王恩伯 译

KEA欧洲事务所 中国业务代表

2012年6月

 

 

 

KEA在中国的简要介绍

位于布鲁塞尔的KEA欧洲事务所是唯一专攻于欧洲的文化创意产业的研究和咨询中心,并结合了作为一个拥有在创意经济领域中卓越的研究能力以及服务于公共机构和私营企业的深厚的实践知识的咨询公司。
KEA经营在整个欧盟内城市,区域和国家上的广泛网络。在了解商业​​文化的同时,KEA一直以来搭建着公共机构和文化产业之间的桥梁。目的是为捍卫其价值和意义。
KEA已设有在北京的代表处。

成立于1999年,KEA已有五年与中国有关当局在对文化创意产业发展的问题上工作经验。并曾多次被邀请来中国和有关政府官员谈论文化经济。最近被中国商务部邀请帮助组织2011年5月14日在深圳文博会举行的第一届中国 – 欧盟文化创意产业合作论坛会,并邀请了来自欧洲的二十余家企业组成的欧盟代表团从事商务对话。
KEA有效的动员了中欧世贸项目(EUCTP)的基金对文化创意产业开放。KEA还与中国商务部建立了良好的关系,并且开发与在北京,澳门,上海及深圳市负责文化创意产业的发展当局良好的关系。

KEA为欧洲委员会撰写的“在欧洲文化经济”(2006年)和“文化的影响创造力”(2010),此研究突现出竞争力和服务经济建设的非技术创新的重要性。 KEA根据中欧知识产权保护(二期)项目, 简称为 “IPR2”(2011年1月)的要求,撰写了中欧首次在文化创意产业的研究文件。它还协助IPR2的工作,对知识产权许可的问题进行调研工作。

KEA有与在香港,深圳和北京(清华大学以及北京大学)的高校内负责文化和创意产业相关研究的高层和学者有密切的交往​关系。

KEA参与组织了在2012年5月19日深圳文博会上举行的中国 – 欧盟研讨会。该活动被命名为2012年欧盟与中国文化间对话年的官方活动。 KEA被阿姆斯特丹市任命为领导欧洲创意产业联盟, 简称为 “ECIA” 的定案过程,此项目是由欧盟委员会支持的并涉及到柏林,米兰,巴塞罗那,南特(现法国总理曾为此市市长)和坦佩雷(芬兰)。

KEA现在正协助英国伯明翰市和比利时蒙斯市(欧洲文化首都,在2016年 – 比利时现首相曾为此市市长)展开对文化创意投资调研和战略咨询。KEA已经开发出为支持地方经济发展的政策措施的基准光栅, 同时协助欧洲议会规划就文化投资结构基金的使用。

欲了解更多信息,请访问www.keanet.eu 

 

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In the Mood for Love – 花样的年华

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For the past five years, we have had the privilege and pleasure of working and advising in China. This May the journey took us to Beijing, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Macao. It is reassuring and even motivating that, similarly to Europe, things are not easy for the Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) in China, both for local and foreign organisations.

The added value of creation and imagination is still only paid lip service in an economy geared towards the cheapest possible modes of production.Thus Chinese designers are forced to take the risk of developing products to final manufacturing stages which means ideas can be stolen along the way. The tendering processes relating to procurement also remain opaque, forcing creative companies to make tremendous and uneconomic efforts in attempts to win bids.

Digital services in China are much more advanced than those in Europe, but local digital publishers do not have the capacity to monetise content effectively. Business models and service contracts for the cultural and creative sectors hardly exists in China. Legal frameworks and model contracts are lacking. These factors create significant barriers to the development of Chinese CCIs. In addition, the sector is now paying the price for years of complacency around intellectual property which is a major tool to enable business transactions in the creative field; Chinese CCIs are currently lobbying for stronger IP enforcement.

The development of CCIs is aimed at the highest political level as a policy priority in China. Creative professionals are championing this cause but much remains to be done to give creators, artists and creative companies the status they deserve. This is in fact not vastly different to the situation in Europe,
although it must be acknowledged that European CCIs benefit from a much more favorable institutional environment, including financial support, intellectual property protection and enforcement and special tax regimes.

There is however a difference in energy and mentality. China, as with any nation that takes the risk of investing in creativity will make mistakes, and may well regret the development of a cultural strategy which is too business focused, relying on large companies as opposed to more creative SMEs. However the key elements are in place – there is political will to make the most of the country’s significant cultural resources and creative energies.

Large Chinese companies are building impressive cultural infrastructure. Dalian Wanda is on the verge of becoming the largest owner of cinema theaters in the world, because of its $2.6bn bid for US-based AMC Entertainment. Emphasis is also placed on building upon ancient cultural traditions to develop Chinese brands with international appeal. China invented ceramics and was first to manufacture and trade silk; this cultural capital is being rediscovered and steps are being taken to transform ancient traditions, demonstrating China’s lust for excellence and quality. The label ‘Shang Xia’, launched by Hermès and the Chinese designer Jiang Qiong’er is just one attempt. The Shenzhen based conglomerate Ruby is aiming for similar results, building upon the 900 year tradition of Jingdezhen ceramics.

China is also courting producers of artistic performances as it lacks performing art companies to fill its newly built theaters and cultural complexes; it is more open to audiovisual co-production with willingness to link culture to technology whilst ensuring that a strong local industry can grow from such collaborations.  Numerous endeavors are also being directed towards lifting the soul and imagination of
Chinese citizens, hungry to be challenged beyond the mere consumption of entertainment or Western brands.

During our trips we have met numerous European organisations, including small companies, which in some cases have been supported by national governments such as those of Finland or the Netherlands to explore the Chinese market. These companies face the same problems as Chinese companies but with one significant difference, they have to acclimatize to business practices and traditions which are representative of Eastern civilization. Business trading in China involves a different philosophy which values patience and trust, the essence of which is to find a reliable business partner and the assumption, that the rest will follow. The decrease in the value of the Euro – a 20 per cent drop in four years, should also help.

We are entering a new phase in which China’s powerful manufacturing industry is being threatened by lower wages in neighbouring countries, and will have to gain its vital competitive edge from culture-based creativity and innovation. The success of European luxury brands or Europe’s attractiveness as a tourist destination demonstrates China’s increasing thirst for quality and excellence.

The climate of economic instability and fiscal austerity in Europe has also resulted in a shift in China’s desire to attract European investment. China is now taking the view that Europe no longer has the capacity to invest substantially. China’s perception of Europe in 2012 is exaggerated by the economic and social suffering taking place in Greece. How can a bankrupt economy invest in China?

European companies should however be aware of the development of ‘clusters’ and ‘creative parks’ largely supported by local public authorities. This presents an opportunity to set foot in Asia in favorable conditions. China’s strong industry fairs are another route to understanding and accessing the market. The Chinese Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) is establishing the first China International Fair of Trade in Services, known as CIFTIS, set to be held every year at the end of May. MOFCOM and the Ministry of Culture are also heavily supporting the ICIF fair in Shenzhen which attracts 450 000 visitors and 2 000 exhibitors from across Asia. Shenzhen has developed unique creative clusters and was the first city to adhere to the  UNESCO city of design network The fair which takes place in the city in May has been devoted to Culture and Creative Industries for the last nine years. Likewise the capital city Beijing, which claims that 11 per cent of GDP in the city derives from CCIs, including IT and tourism, is promoting its own Design Week known as BJDW (2nd Edition in September). The Macao Fair in Trade and Investment (MIF- in November 2012) will focus on the creative industries. Macau like Hong Kong benefits from a special regime worth looking at; it is committed to attracting animation and audiovisual production companies in a new development zone and aims to diversify its casino economy.

All of these international fairs attract hundreds of thousands of Chinese visitors eager to learn about creative jobs and cultural traditions from China and abroad. This is an opportunity for European regions to market their attraction as tourist destinations whilst also showcasing their own valuable cultural and creative assets.

China is pushing to export its culture for both diplomatic and trade reasons (whilst the EU is still, in many cases, using culture as cocktail diplomacy!)

This drive to export should encourage European culture and trade fairs (Cannes, Frankfurt, Milan, Paris, London) to develop promotional activities to ensure that they remain world leaders by attracting China’s cultural and creative companies. Taking heed of events in the art fair world where the positions of
Basel, Paris, London and Venice are now threatened by Hong Kong. China is now the world’s second largest art market.

China is also developing strong links with African and Portuguese speaking countries (via Macau) through cultural projects. These are other opportunities for European partnerships.

China remains envious of Europe’s cultural heritage, its excellence in enabling the expression of creativity, its drive to maintain cultural diversity, its cultural institutions (museums, theaters), the quality of its designers, architects, artists and production companies… China’s priority is to develop partnership with Europe at policy and business levels.

If only Europe were more conscious of its cultural and business assets. The meeting of Western and Eastern cultural traditions and know-how will benefit world creation, liberate creative energies whilst at the same time increase mutual understanding. Is Europe in the mood for love?

 

Philippe Kern CEO and Founder of KEA (June 2012)

 

KEA in China – in brief

Brussels based KEA is the only research and advisory center specialized in European cultural and creative industries. It combines excellence in research and practical knowledge of the creative economy advising public authorities as well as companies. KEA operates throughout the European Union with extensive contacts at city, regional and national level. It builds bridges between public authorities and the cultural sector. It understands the business of culture. It defends its values and meanings. KEA has a representative based in Beijing.

KEA, established in 1999, has 5 years experience in dealing with Chinese authorities on creative industry issues. It has been invited numerous times in China to address officials on the economics of culture. It was recently asked by the Chinese Ministry of Trade (MOFCOM) to help in the organization of the First EU-China forum on Creative Industries which took place in Shenzhen on 14th May 2011, inviting a delegation of 20 enterprises from Europe to engage in a business dialogue.  KEA was instrumental in opening the EU–China Trade programme to creative industries (EUCTP). It has an excellent relationship with MOFCOM. It has also developed strong relationships with authorities in Beijing, Macau, Shanghai and Shenzhen responsible for the development of creative industries.

KEA authored the study “The Economy of Culture in Europe” (2006) and “The Impact of Culture on Creativity” (2010) for the European Commission highlighting the importance of non-technological innovation in competitiveness and the building of a service economy. KEA wrote the first ever EU/China mapping document on creative industries at the request of the EU/China IPR2 programme (January 2011). It also worked for IPR2 on a working paper on IP licensing.

KEA has relations with the Universities in Hong-Kong, Shenzhen and Beijing (Tsinghua as well as Beijing Universities) with high level contacts with academics in charge of culture and creative industries related research.

KEA was involved in the organisation of a EU-China Seminar as part of the ICIF fair in Shenzhen on 19 May 2012. The event is branded as part of the 2012 year of EU-China Intercultural dialogue. KEA was appointed by the city of Amsterdam to lead the application process of the European Creative Industry Alliance (ECIA), a project supported by the European Commission involving Berlin, Milan, Barcelona, Nantes (France – the city of France’s Prime Minister) and Tampere (Finland).

KEA is working today with the city of Birmingham and Mons (European Capital of Culture in 2016 – the city of Belgium’s Prime Minister) on cultural and creative investment. It has developed a benchmark raster for policy measures supporting local economic development. It is advising the European Parliament on the use of structural funds for cultural investment.

For more information please visit www.keanet.eu.

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